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Designer Replica Bags Both worked in fine dining. Jair apprenticed at Daniel in New York, where he worked with French techniques and I worked in Spain and am inspired by that. We don like to call it a Mexican restaurant. On the other hand, the retention of Nigerian currency may simply have been to provide a recognised circulating medium, and to provide some legitimacy to Biafra’s use of Nigerian currency in purchasing foreign
When the Nigerians announced that they would no longer redeem bank notes exported from Nigeria after August 1967, the Biafrans worked quickly to gather bank notes remaining in circulation so that they could be converted into precious foreign
‘The government has long been aware of the terrible experiences of our people over the issue of From Ojukwu’s speech it appears that the emergency issue was prepared in a short period of time, although the need for an alternate currency would have dated from the time when Nigerian notes were first withdrawn from
‘Fellow countrymen, I am happy to announce to you that I have today signed a decree introducing Biafran currency notes which will be the legal tender throughout the Republic of Despite Ojukwu’s official speech on 27 January and an announcement to the international press on 30 January on the introduction of the new bank notes, there is some lingering doubt as to the official versions of events (which can sometimes be misleading, especially when recorded some time after the events). There is the possibility that the Biafran currency was actually introduced earlier than stated, for in an interview at Umuahia on 18 January 1968,
‘I understand that some women in the villages said that if this money [during the recall of Nigerian currency for Biafran currency] was wanted for the war they did not mind; the government should take it The italics in the above quotation is an editorial comment added to the interview for the publication of Ojukwu’s book, and it could not be correct if the Biafran currency was introduced some ten days after the
Another discrepancy in official versions lies in the date of the declaration whereby Nigerian notes were no longer to be legal
Records of the introduction of Biafran currency, which might confirm the dates in question, are few and far
Currency itself seems to have been a subject close to Ojukwu (or one of his advisers), as we find the following clause in instructions sent to the delegates of the Eastern Region who were negotiating with Nigeria prior to
‘The question of central banking and coinage is something which must be very carefully looked It is most likely that when the time came to organise the first issue of Biafran notes, Ojukwu played a significant
Realising that their activities had led to a greatly reduced amount of money in circulation, the Biafrans prepared to replace the Nigerian currency, with this endeavour resulting in the first Biafran note
On the back of the 5-shilling note is a picture of four Ibo girls, and surrounding the value of the note to the left is a ‘manilla’. Manillas are a type of primitive money that were in use in Nigeria for hundreds of
The back of the 1-pound note carries the Biafran coat of arms above a wreath (constructed of two sprigs of unidentified leaves), and a ceremonial spear behind the disc in which the value of the note is
One of the more intriguing aspects of the first issue is the dotted line which runs through the right hand side on the front of the
‘E T E M N E N I R’ or ‘R I A E A M E T E’

and on the 1-pound:

‘M T E M N E N I W’ or ‘G I A E A M E T M’

(The leading and trailingcodes may be truncated, and these particular letters may not be
It is interesting that such an attempt has been made to produce this quasi-security device, as another very simple security device is absent – that of non-fluorescing
Of the various symbols used in the design of the Biafran bank notes (both issues), several were very
– The coat of arms used by Biafra was derived from the coat of arms granted to the Eastern Region of Nigeria in
– Taken from their coat of arms, the rising sun became the dominant symbol of
– The palm tree was important because of its economic significance to Biafra – next to oil, products from the palm trees were the most valuable exports from the region prior to the new republic being
The 1968 Biafran bank note issue was not only an emergency issue, it also faced the trials and tribulations of the country it was serving – many of the notes not making it to
‘August 13 [1968]: The Hank Wharton Plot, hatched by British government and American CIA to sabotage Biafra and help Nigeria to carry through her ‘final thrust’ into Biafran Hank Wharton was an American transport operator who had come to an arrangement with the Biafrans to fly arms twice weekly from Lisbon (Portugal) to
The blockades imposed on Biafra by Nigeria and her allies started to take their toll, and it would seem that the loss of the of bank notes through Hank Wharton’s ‘treachery’ was one of the more telling
Although the Central Bank of Nigeria had declared that the old Nigerian currency would no longer be exchanged after 22 January 1968, the trade in old Nigerian bank notes continued well into
The second Bank note issue

Aware not only of the shortage of currency, but also of the poor quality of the notes and lack of denominations, preparations were made for the introduction of a new series of
‘I am happy to announce to you that we have now been able to produce realBiafran currency of the highest While each of the notes of the second issue have a degree of common design on their front https://www.blxsk8.com , each denomination is distinct in its
The back of the 5-shilling note is very similar to the first issue, with the picture of the four Ibo girls and the manilla being used in the same
However the ‘Alo’ makes its reappearance on the back of the 5-pound note, this time having a white disc with the coat of arms laying over its
The notes of the second series are printed on non-fluorescing paper embedded with red and blue
With such an interesting attempt at ‘micro printing’ it would be pleasing to know where the notes were printed, but the printer of each issue is a
From January 1968, a Swiss public relations company, ‘Markpress’ of Geneva, looked after various interests of the Biafran government, operating the ‘Biafran Overseas Press Division’ and providing access for journalists to
In addition, Biafra was reported to have bought many of its armaments in Geneva and Lisbon – reinforcing the probability that one or both of these cities may have provided printing presses for the
While not known for certain how many notes were produced for circulation in Biafra, a reasonable estimate can be made by extrapolating the number of notes prepared for each known serial number

£1 A/A to A/D 40 million

There were many more notes prepared for the second issue of notes with the serial number prefixes being distinct for each

NA to NR (except NI & NO) 16 million


£1 BA to BZ (except BI & BO) 24 million

CA to CZ (except CI & CO) 24 million

DA to DX (except DI & DO) 22 million

Total £1 70 million

£5 WA to WF 6 million

£10 ZA to ZC 3 million

The total value of each series printed, based on the numbers extrapolated above, was £50 million for the first issue and £
Although Biafra had made a concerted effort to produce the second series of higher quality bank notes, it would appear that their circulation was
At the end of the civil war there was a critical shortage of the new Nigerian currency, which retarded efforts to replace the currency in circulation in the
It is not known what happened to the Biafran currency that was surrendered Wholesale Replica Bags, but it was almost certainly
The sale of undelivered notes included remainders as well as notes in issued
No matter in what form the notes are found (the remainders are now getting scarce), the notes of Biafra offer an interesting piece of history – a piece of African history, and a piece of bank note Designer Replica Bags.